Journalism Studies.

1. Distinguish identified news reports according to genres narrative and ideological framework

Illustrate the structures of national and international news in the press. First summarize discourse analytical theory of the processes and structures of news reports as it has been developed in the last year. Then, this theoretical framework needs to be applied through an analysis of the structures of international news, based on a case study of world press reporting. For example analyze CNN or Fox and focus on a type of genre used, for example: Investigative

(Documentary Reportage)

Then show how this news company has decided to cover their story based on a case study for example the U.S. Elections the theme can be anyone of your choice as long as it is current and it has happened in the last year.


Include extensive research into your areas of interest, making appropriate use of various sources after taking stock of the different narratives and genre conventions related to news reporting by a particular journalist. Each entry must include appropriate, annotation, referencing and critical analysis. Your research should help guide your following tasks

  1. You must keep your personal blog updated with different cuttings showing how the journalist reports news keeping points 1 and 2 above as a priority. You are to write 500 words but not limited to on each of the above points.
  2. You must prepare a list of questions to the Journalist that you are going to fit in a debate of an hour regarding a topic of your choice. You must provide 10 questions at least.


Documentary Journalism:

Research :


It is a common question in the industry wether to classify documentary as a genre of journalism, therefore in order to fully comprehend the real meaning of journalism within the context of documentary, one must understand why is or can documentary be considered as journalism.

Citizen Four’s Film maker Laura Poitras claims that there is no question that documentary is journalism. She proves this point by saying that a complete documentary  would proceed by a series of collecting data and information, and informing the audience about a life condition or a situation.

Film making isn’t meant breaking news

As Laura Poitras states, in order to produce documentary one has to proceed with the same traits of journalism such as the collection of data and information which overall informs, entertains, educate… Therefore documentary should be considered as a type of journalism which in fact is.


There are various ways and means by which a journalist can produce a piece of documentary journalism. All depending on the are of study that the subject of the documentary will discuss and of coarse the creative style of the producer.

The coming documentary features  are features that mainly discuss the same subject or to be more accurate they discuss one person ie. Edward Snowden.

[Edward Snowden leaked various American C.I.A  ‘secrets’ that uncovered the way that the system works.]

The difference of these documentary lies in the approach that the producers and journalist decided to proceed with during there investigative work and how to execute it.


This documentary movie Directed by Laura Poitras is directly spot on and probably the best documentary about Snowden, when it comes to discussing the proper use of documentary journalism and this is because of various reasons.

Laura Poitras which is well known documentary film maker was contacted by Edward Snowden himself about his information. She had been already working on a film about surveillance of governments. Her work was already affective and due to this she was even stopped in several times at airports for questioning however she did no stop.

Snowden contacted her and when he told her that he was a high level analyst that want to expose the surveillance of the NSA on both American and other foreign citizens as a good journalist she persuaded him to let her film the interviews.

The interesting idea behind this documentary, CITIZEN FOUR, is that the tone is in the  first person from Laura’s point of view.  It depicts every step that the journalist took, from being contacted to going to Hong Kong.

What strikes me and is definitely going to be of affect while practising journalism myself is the style and techniques used.


It is in the first person with texting describing what she was doing, how the situation was and so on. Along with this there was voice overs also saying the emails that were sent.


Primary footage of interviews with Edward Snowden which were an assit towards this documentary.  Another element when it comes to footage is the footage of important events such as, Congressional Hearing with NSA director Keith Alexander in 2012  and the Senate Hearing with James Clopper, Director of National Intelligence. This footage explained better the situation. And obviously one has to mention the grabs from  CNN news, The guardian and other news agencies that reported the same case.

When discussing such documentary one has to also discuss the agenda and the bias that are included in this piece of documentary journalism. This documentary sets you straight within the first minute of it. It shows from which point of view it is going to be held from her view. Which view that thinks of excessive surveillance as a bad thing.


With regards to the next documentary about Edward Snowden, I will be comparing them to the previous documentary. 


First of all this Documentary is a production of John Goetz and Paul Erik Heilbuth

As the one being discussed before, this one is also a documentary about Edward Snowden and the leak of information about the NSA’s excessive surveillance. However it has different techniques which makes it different on so many levels.

The difference between Citizen four(the previous documentary) and this one, Terminal F, is quite substantial.

The first issue that differentiates you directly is the fact that this documentary piece is not proceeded in the first person. This documentary is done in the third person and it unlike CITIZEN FOUR the language used is in the past. The documentary discusses the issue in hindsight.

Another different element in this documentary is that the producer/ journalist decided to deal with this issue with no bias what so ever. This was resulted by the fact that during this documentary on can recall to different interviews with different people from different spectrums that deal with the issue. In contrary to Citizen Four it shows a wide range of point of views that come about when discussing Edward Snowden. Such as an interview with him, with his father, Julian Assange and another journalist from Wikileaks, General Micheal Hail.

Another reason by which one can reason by saying that it had no bias is that the journey was portrayed also from the both ends of the partners. For instance in opposition of the other documentary this one shows the point of view of the law. Interviewing the General Micheal Hail and even Japanese Diplomats.

This Documentary does not necessary glorify Snowden’s actions.

Julian Assange in this documentary was also taken into deep consideration. The interview was a detailed review of what he and Wikileaks was doing at the back of the story which in reality seriously helped Edward. For this reason the audience is more aware or is maybe more able to comprehend how he managed to get away with it and finally end up in a safe place.

If I had to criticise this documentary, overall it is a really good production, from footage to information and so on, however they could have used chest supers with the names and designations. Documentaries like these are watched internationally and not everyone knows who everyone is.

references :

Das, A. (2015). Sundance 2015: Documentary or Journalism? – Center for Media and Social Impact. [online] Center for Media and Social Impact. Available at: [Accessed 29 Oct. 2017].

Edward Snowden Documentary: Citizenfour (2014). [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Oct. 2017].

Edward Snowden Documentary: Citizenfour (2014). [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Nov. 2017].

Questions for Reno Bugeja:

  1. X’taħseb fuq il-ġurnaliżmu f’Malta? .. għandna nagħmlu aktar rekwiżiti biex wieħed jista jsejjaħ lilu innifsu ġurnalist?
  2. Jekk iva …. Imma jekk xi ħadd irid ikun ġurnalist mill-kumdita ta’ daru, affiljat ma ħadd ma jistax? Din ma tkunx qed toħnoq il-liberta tal-epressjoni?
  3. Taħseb li l-fatt li d-departiment tal-informazzjoni  (li tajjeb ngħidu, toħroġ hi l-press cards )  taqa’ taħt il-gvern ta’ Malta, il-gvern jista’ jkollu impatt kbir fuq min jakwista press card jew le.. minħabba forsi rekwiżiti ġodda jew kkumpliati… li jagħmluwa impossibli li tkun rikkonoxxut press, mill-esperjenza tiegħek kif din tista’ taffetwa l-ġurnaliżmu?
  4. X’inhi l-opinjoni tiegħek fuq il-ġurnaliżmu dokumentarju f’Malta?
  5. Mill-esperjenza tiegħek, x’jagħmel ġurnaliżmu dokumentarju tajjeb jew ħażin?
  6. Kieku jkollok tirrakkomanda Head of News minflokok lil min tirrakkomanda?
  7. Bħala head of news ta’ stazzjon tal-istat, jekk jiġi xi ħadd fuqhek b’ informazzjoni li l-gvern qed jagħmel aġir illegali, kif tipproċedi?
  8. Il-fatt li l-head of news jingħżel mill-gvern, ,ma tistax toħloq Agenda li mhux floka fi stazzjon li sippost jkun Imparzjali, x’taħseb?
  9. Fit-toroq hemm l-għajdut li l-kamra tal-aħbarijiet ta’ TVM bħalissa qed jidħlu ħafna ġurnalisti mill-kamp laburista, veru ?